mucosal barrier in the gastrointestinal tract is primarily lined

Posted on 04 Мар 201818

A Review on Oral Mucosal Drug Delivery System

A Review on Oral Mucosal Drug Delivery System
Rakesh Hooda*, Mohit Tripathi and Prof. Kiran Kapoor Vol. 1 No. 1 2012 www.thepharmajournal.com ...

The cell that does all these things, firing off urgent messages into the deepest parts of the brain, switching on one strange unaccountable memory after another, is itself a proper brain cell, a certified neuron belonging to the brain but miles away out in the open air, nosing around the world. It is also found in the CNS and may be related to the control of feelings of satiety (fullness, lack of hunger). A pattern of annular contraction of the smooth muscle layers in the walls of the small intestine which temporarily seems to cut the region affected into individual compartments; this activity serves to mix the chyme within the small intestine; it is controlled by the ANS. The parenchymal (chief functional) cells of the liver organized into plates or cords radiating outward from the central vein of each liver lobule and separated from each other by radiating capillary sinusoids; they are polygonal in shape with a large oval nucleus and a granular cytoplasm; they carry out a wide variety of metabolic, endocrine, and secretory (exocrine) functions; they synthesize and secrete bile, synthesize and secrete certain blood proteins and lipoproteins; play a major role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; store or detoxify toxins, etc. A serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, fever and chills, and profuse diarrhea, weight loss and possible rectal bleeding.

Slow segmenting movements within the large intestine; as each haustral pouch is filled with chyme, the walls contract which assists in reabsorbing the water added to the chyme by the secretions of the digestive system, and compressing and compacting the remaining wastes into feces; after the compaction movement, the chyme/feces is slowly moved forward to the next haustral pouch; it is mediated by parasympathetic autonomic motor impulses. A dense fibrous connective tissue cord resulting from the obliteration of the umbilical vein of the fetus and passing from the navel to the notch in the anterior border of the liver and along the undersurface of that organ. One of the visceral reflexes involved in the regulation of digestion in which sensory signals from gastric distension as a meal is ingested stimulate increased motility = peristalsis in the ileum and relaxation of the ileocecal valve; therefore, chyme moves through the ileocecal valve into the large intestine; it is mediated by gastrin release from G cells in the stomach and possibly also supported by parasympathetic autonomic motor impulses. The most common of the small, thin, pointed, cone-shaped protuberances on the anterior dorsal surface of the tongue which contain taste buds; they are lined by a wet stratified squamous epithelium. The enzyme, produced by the salivary glands, which is present in saliva and catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch to sugar, beginning the chemical digestion of complex carbohydrates; it works well in the slightly alkaline oral cavity but becomes denatured and ineffective in the highly acidic environment of the stomach.

G cells which assists in the endocrine regulation of gastric secretion The numerous small indentations in the mucous membrane of the stomach which are the mouths of the gastric glands. These cells are sometimes called "dust cells", but they are basically that have moved out of connective tissue and onto the epithelial surface of the alveoli. A portal system is a vascular arrangement in which blood from the capillaries of one organ is transported to the capillaries of another organ by a connecting vein or veins without returning to the heart. The enzyme present in gastric juice which catalyzes the hydrolysis of neutral fats (mono-, di-, and triglycerides) into glycerol and free fatty acids in the stomach; it is synthesized and secreted by the chief cells of the gastric glands of the stomach of neonates to contribute to the digestion of milk's butterfat; synthesis is regulated off soon after the infant is weaned. Secretion Autonomic NS Regulation: Increased sympathetic impulses and decreased parasympathetic impulses to gastric smooth muscle stimulate emptying. The simple tubular exocrine secretory structures of the intestinal mucous membrane formed by extension of layer of simple columnar cells which line the small and large intestine; mucus-producing goblet cells, other glandular secretory cells and small numbers of enteroendocrine cells are present. The secretory cells which produce an acidic solution containing the protein mucin; they are located primarily in the upper, more superficial portions of the gastric glands; they are believed to be the stem cells for all the other cells in the mucosal glands of the stomach. Small irregular pouches filled with adipose tissue which are situated along the outer wall of the large intestine beneath the visceral peritoneum. The pancreatic proteolytic enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of elastin (and collagen) in the small intestine. Most lipids are aggregated in micelles in the chyme of the small intestine.

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Histology Study Guide Respiratory Tract . These notes are an ancillary resource, NOT a substitute for scheduled resource sessions or for textbooks.

Western Caucasian female population, with an increased incidence in the higher social classes; the male prevalence rate is much lower. The enzyme present in pancreatic juice which catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives in the duodenum; elevated serum pancreatic amylase levels are associated with pancreatitis and many other abdominal disorders. The middle portion of the small intestine, starting at the duodenum and extending to the ileum; it is ~9-10 feet in length; its wall consists of an inner simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells, a lamina propria of loose fibrous connective tissue, a muscularis, and an outer serosa; it is a main site for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream; it is larger, thicker-walled, more vascular and has more circular folds (plicae circulares) and fewer Peyer's patches than the ileum. Duodenal proprioceptive stretch recepters provide negative feedback information to inhibit emptying if the duodenum becomes overfilled. The enzyme present in pancreatic juice which catalyzes the hydrolysis of DNA (deoxy-ribonucleic acids) into constituent ribonucleotides in the small intestine.

The ring of smooth muscle fibers around the distal opening of the pylorus of the stomach into the duodenum; it regulates gastric emptying by remaining closed except when a small amount of liquified, partially digested food, chyme, or liquid is being passed to the duodenum; it protects the duodenal lining from erosion by the acidic stomach contents; its opening is regulated by the content of the meal, by hyperglycemia, by digestive hormone (gastrin, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and gastric inhibitory peptide) and regulatory impulses from the ANS. Slow segmenting movements, every 15 to 25 seconds, within the stomach involving complex patterns of contraction of the three layers of gastric smooth muscle (circular, longitudinal, and oblique) which complete the mechanical digestion of food while combining the bolus of swallowed food with the gastric secretions to continue to chemical digestion of food. The enzyme present in pancreatic juice which catalyzes the hydrolysis of neutral fats (mono-, di-, and triglycerides) into glycerol and free fatty acids in the duodenum; elevated serum pancreatic lipase levels are associated with pancreatitis and some other abdominal disorders. If and when we reach an understanding of these cells and their functions, including the moods and whims under their governance, we will know a lot more about the mind than we do now, a world away. Ingestion (2) Propulsion {peristalsis} (3) Mechanical Digestion (4) Chemical Digestion (5) Absorption (6) Elimination {defecation} [Note: food acquisition processes are important, but outside the parameters of this course.

The S-shaped section of the large intestine between the descending colon and the rectum on the lower left side of the abdominal cavity; its wall consists of an inner simple columnar epithelium, a lamina propria of loose fibrous connective tissue, a muscularis, and a serosa; it functions to complete the final absorption (less than 5%) of nutrients from food, to reabsorb the water added to the chyme by the secretions of the digestive system, and to compress and compact the remaining wastes into feces, which it stores prior to excretion. In our slide set, ciliated respiratory epithelium is best represented by slides of the trachea (or "trachea and esophagus"). The enzyme-catalyzed removal of an amino group (-NH2) from an organic compound; an important function of the liver hepatocytes and carried out in lesser amounts by renal tubular cells and a few other cell types. The active proteolytic enzyme, synthesized as an inactive precursor precursor, pepsinogen, and secreted by the chief cells of the gastric glands of the stomach; it is activated in the lumen of the stomach by autocatalysis in the presence of gastric hydrochloric acid; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of most large proteins into somewhat smaller units (peptones). The series of shallow pouches which form the gross structure of the wall of the large intestine; contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of these pouches assists in extracting the water added to the chyme by the secretions of the digestive system, and compresses and compacts the remaining wastes into feces, a process called haustral churning. The second largest pair of salivary glands, situated inside of and near the lower edge of each side of the mandible, composed of both serous and mucous acini; their secretions make a major contribution to the composition of saliva; their secretions are delivered to the floor of the mouth under the tongue by large ducts. The essential gas-exchange function of lung can only be carried out because. Because the passage of air depends on wide open passageways, the larger respiratory passages (. A group of amphipathic (both lipid and water soluble) metabolic waste products of the hepatic catabolism of cholesterol and steroid hormones; they are produced by hepatocytes and added to bile; in bile they function as a surfactant to emulsify ingested fats to improve the efficiency of lipid digestion and absorption in the duodenum; they are reabsorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine and returned to the liver by the hepatic portal circulation ("enterohepatic circulation") where they are recycled so that each molecule is used approximately 20 times; they also play a negative-feedback regulatory role in the control of hepatic synthesis of cholesterol. GI tract during digestive gland secretions (5) secrete mucous to lubricate and protect the stomach and intestinal linings (6) secrete CCK, VIP, and secretin (enteroendocrine substanes) to help regulate the digestive activities of the stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas and intestines 1/3 Diagram and Label: structures of the small intestine that increase its surface area (folding) for digestion and absorption.

Esophagus - Pathology Outlines

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